The Sulabh flush compost toilet is eco-friendly, technically appropriate, socio-culturally acceptable and economically affordable. It is based on an indigenous technology that can easily be constructed using local labor and materials. It also provides health benefits by allowing for the safe disposal of human excreta on-site, without requiring people to manually remove waste. It consists of a pan with a steep slope of 25°-28° and a specially-designed trap with a 20mm water seal. The toilet only requires 1-1.5 liters of water for flushing, thus helping to conserve water.
There are two pits of varying size and capacity depending on the number of users. The capacity of each pit is normally designed for three years’ usage. Both pits are used alternately. When one pit is full, the incoming excreta is diverted into the second pit. In about two years, the sludge is digested and becomes almost dry and pathogen free, thus safe for handling as manure. Digested sludge is odorless and works as a manure and soil-conditioner. It can be dug out easily and used for agricultural purposes. The cost of emptying the pit can be met partially from the cost of manure made available. The Sulabh toilet can also be constructed on the upper floors of buildings. It has a high potential for up-gradation, and can later be easily connected to sewers when introduced in the area. Sulabh has so far constructed over one million individual household toilets in different parts of India.
There are twelve different models of the Sulabh Shauchalaya, which can serve a range of 5-10 people for 2-10 years Models begin at 15 USD and can be constructed by local workers using locally-sourced materials.
Sulabh International Social Service Organization, a non-profit voluntary social organization founded in 1970 by Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak, is dedicated to the Gandhian ideology of emancipation of 'scavengers', a section of Indian society condemned to clean and carry human excreta manually. Sulabh is noted for achieving success in the fields of cost-effective sanitation, liberation of scavengers, social transformation of society, prevention of environmental pollution and development of non-conventional sources of energy.
Publicly available: yes
Countries where available: India
Price range (USD): 1 to 20 USD
Offered or can be licensed for local manufacture: Yes
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